Forces Reshaping the Process of ManagementZuhair Ali
The key factors reshaping the process of management are:
- Power of Human Resources
- Cultural Diversity
- Rapid Change
An insight of organizational behavior is important to managers, who remains responsible for improving organizational efficiency and effectiveness, the ability of an organization to accomplish the objectives.
Over the past decade, the challenges confronting managers in effectively utilizing human resources and managing organizational behavior has increased. These challenges stem from changing forces in the technological, global, and social or cultural environments.
Organizations can acquire a competitive advantage, a way of outperforming other organizations providing similar goods and services. They will be able to pursue any or all of the following goals: increase efficiency, increase quality; increase innovation and creativity; and increase responsiveness to customers.
Organizational efficiency is increased by reducing the number of resources, such as people or materialistic resources required to produce a quantity of goods or services. Organizations try to find better ways to utilize and increase the skills and abilities of their workforce.
Cross-training workers to perform different tasks and finding new ways of organizing workers to use their skills more efficiently improve efficiency. The global competitive challenge facing organizations is to invest in the skills of the employees because better-trained workforce make better use of technology. Increased competition has also put pressure on companies to increase the quality of the goods and services they provide. One approach to increasing quality is Total Quality Management (TQM) blended with Kaizen methodology, involves a whole new philosophy of managing behavior in organizations and includes elements like giving employees the responsibility for finding ways to do their jobs more efficiently and ways to improve quality.
An organization’s ethics are rules, beliefs, and values that outline ways in which managers and workers should behave when confronted with a situation that may help or harm other people inside or outside an organization.
Ethical behavior enhances the well-being (the happiness, health, and prosperity) of individuals, groups, organizations, and the organizational environment. Ethics establish the goals and behaviors appropriate to the organization. Many organizations have the goal of making a profit, to be able to pay employees, suppliers, and shareholders. Ethics specifies what actions an organization should take to make a profit and what limits should be put on organizations and their managers to prevent harm.
The challenge of managing a diverse workforce increases as organizations expand their operations internationally. Several issues arise in the international arena. First, managers must understand cultural differences to interact with employees and associates in foreign countries. Understanding the differences between national cultures is important in any attempt to manage behavior in global organizations to increase performance.
Second, the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling become more complex in a global environment. Planning requires harmonization between managers in the home country and those abroad. Organizing, the allocation of decision-making authority and responsibility between headquarters and the foreign country is a significant function of global managers. Leading requires managers to tailor their leadership styles to suit differences in the attitudes and values of foreign workers. Controlling involves establishing the evaluation, reward, and promotion policies of the organization and training and developing a globally diverse workforce.